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INDIANS 

AT • WORK 




- JULY 15 ~ AUGUST I , 

A NEWS SHEET FOR. INDIANS 
AND THE INDIAN SERVICE 



SNVfHSOA^ 



OFFICE -OF* INDIAN -AFFAIRS 

WASHINGTON, P-C* 




INDIANS 



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CONTENTS OF THE ISSUE OF JULY 15 - AUGUST 1, 1937 



Volume IV 



Number 23-24 



Page 



Edi to rial John Coll ier 1 

New Indian Welfare Organization Formed 

Through Merger Of Two Existing Groups 5 

The Tan Oak, Friend Of The Hoopa Valley In- 
dians: Shall We Destroy It? Leonard B. Radtke 7 

Charter News 11 

Districts For Headquarters Of Supervisory 

Personnel Are Coordinated 13 

Oscar H. Lipps 15 

Crime Prevention Among Indians Wayne L . Morse 16 

Report On Pension Bill Tells Story Of 

Wounded Knee Massacre 26 

No Federal Aid For This Sioux Girll Rose S. Hallam 29 

Fort Hall Leaders Speak At " Indian Day" 

At Pocat ello , Idaho 31 

Early Indians Of Montana 34 

Indian Claims Commission Bill Defeated 36 

A Trader On The Fort Peck Reservation 

In Montana Speaks G. A. Lundeen 37 

Fighting One of Agriculture's Great Plagues 

At Western Shoshone Agency 38 

Navajo Tribal Council Sends Delegates To 

Testify In Senate Subcommittee Hearings 40 

Indian Office Policy Summarized John Collier 41 

Public Health Work Among Children At The 

Cheyenne River Agency. South Dakota .. Phoebe Sheppard 43 

The Heirship Land Problem - An Answer 

Suggested C. R. Beaulieu 45 

Visitors In The Washington Office 46 

Cover Design 46 

Mexican Novel Gives Vivid Interpretation 

Of Indian Life D' Arcy McNickle 47 

New Name For I.E.C.W 48 

From I.E.C.W. Reports (CCC - ID) 49 




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NOTE 

Consideration is "being given to 
changes in the form and organization of 
"Indians At Work." Pending decisions on 
these changes, it will he necessary to 
omit several issues. 



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VOL. IT - JULY 15-AUGU5T 1, 1937 * : RQ £3-24 

Without critics, and opposition, no administration knows 
its own strengths. It may know its own weaknesses; tut only through 
its critics (and the self-searching which they occasion) is it like- 
ly to know its own strengths. 

This remark is occasioned particularly "by recent Senate 
hearings devoted to complaints by Navajos. Here are the main facts 
fully established through the hearings. 

1. Through three and a half years, the Navajo Council 
endorsed. - and actively supported - every major policy of the pres- 
ent Indian Office. The endorsed policies included agency consolida- 
tion, the establishment of land-use-management districts, the sub- 
stitution of day school for boarding school development, the land 
consolidation policies and, above all, the stock reduction and range 
management policies. Nevertheless, 

2. The Navajo Council itself believed that it was in- 
sufficiently representative and on November 24 last, adopted a res- 



olution to reorganize. The goal of reorganization was an electoral 
system wide-based on the eighteen land management districts. To a 
council so reorganized, wider responsibilities might be given. 

Though knowing that a safe equilibrium might give place 
to turmoil, for a while, the Indian Office reported Yes to the Coun- 
cil's proposal. Months of a canvass of the entire tribe by the Coun- 
cil's committee ensued; and there emerged the Navajo Constitutional 
Assembly, which became also the interim tribal council. The Assembly 
through a special committee proceeded to draw a constitution. Its 
work is not finished yet, but enough is done to make it already cer- 
tain that the largest Indian tribe will create a self-government en- 
tirely modern and yet deliberately infused with traditional elements 
peculiar to the Navajos. 

The new tribal government, incidentally, will be totally 
divorced from the Indian Office, i. e., no regular employee of the 
government may sit in the new tribal legislature. 

3. I have called attention in earlier editorials to the 
record which Indian tribes are making in that most necessary but 
most onerous part of soil conservation - the reduction of live stock. 
Particularly striking have been the actions by Laguna and Acoma 
Pueblos across two years past. 

But no tribe depends on sheep to the intense degree of the 
Navajos. Probably sheep mean more in the consciousness of the Navajos 
than of any other tribe. 



I have pointed out that reduction programs in all recent 
or known range history have had to he forced through by authority - 
that white live stock men, using land not individually their own, 
never have voluntarily made the sacrifices necessary to range con- 
servation. 

Well - the Navajo grazing regulations are now promulgated. 
They are a document unique to Navajo-land alone, and they are the 
product of the Navajo Council's grazing committee - in conference 
with the Agency, of course, hut acting as a body independent of the 
government . 

These regulations deal comprehensively and precisely with 
the whole problem of the range. Carried through with wisdom, they 
will achieve all further needed reduction without cutting down the 
breeding stock at all, and with a steady increase of wool yield and 
meat yield. 

But they come on the heels of three arduous "horizontal" 
reduction campaigns, and they call for further and new efforts and 
momentary sacrifices. The Navajo s, like the Acomas and the Lagunas, 
voluntarily have gone forward. They have shown the way to all the 
live stock interests of the great West. All of the above, the Senate 
hearings fully establish. 

***** 

Though rains have fallen to Bast and to West, at Fort 
Peck, Montana, no rains have fallen. The condition of Indians and 



their neighbors is desperate. Large expenditures from the new Re- 
lief Act will he necessary to prevent complete human ruination in 
the Port Peck area. Superintendent Hunter, accompanied by spokesmen 
of the distressed whites, has "been in Washington, and help (not 
adequate, but very substantial) is being supplied. 



Another Senate hearing has dealt with Klamath, Oregon, 
Indian matters. Former Superintendent Wade Crawford, removed on 
charges May 15, 1937, made allegations that the Department had sur- 
rendered to certain lumber companies and had forgiven, without 
legal right so to do, advance payments due on allotment timber con- 
tracts. Thereupon, the record was presented in full to the commit- 
tee. It showed the Department standing fast though the lumber com- 
panies wailed, though the Indian allottees signed the unfavorable 
contracts, though Representatives and Senators and the States' s 
Governor urged that the Department should yield - in order to com- 
promise an arguable situation, and assist in relieving the serious 
economic distress in the Klamath Palls region. Finally the com- 
panies surrendered and signed to pay the delinquent advance payments 
at the higher (the contract-base) rate instead of the lower (the 
contract modification) rate. 

The record overwhelmed Mr. Crawford on many other points 
as well. 



These notes are written flying to Denver. Washington 
tlazed under humid heat, "but westward a giant cloud, tower-shaped, 
rose from horizon nearly to the zenith. 

Now, the Alleghenies a thousand feet "below, we hurtle 
through an ominous twilight, just within or just "below that monster 
cloud, and the plane shudders, drops, leaps, sways, and drops again. 
We are riding strong swift "billows of a tropical storm, and the rain 
hides the drenched mountains. 

Tomorrow, at Boulder, Colorado, near Denver, the University 

opens its course on Problems of the Indian. 

JOHN COLLIER 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs 
****** 



NEW INDIAN WELFARE ORGANIZATION FORMED THROUGH MERGER OF 
TWO EXISTING GROUPS 



The American Indian Defense Association and the National Associa- 
tion on Indian Affairs announce the formation, through the consolidation of 
their respective memberships, of the American Association on Indian Affairs. 

Officers of the new organization are: Oliver LaFarge, president; 
Haven Emerson, M. D., first vice-president; Miss Amelia Elizabeth White, sec- 
ond vice-president; Percy Jackson, controller; Mrs. John Rogers, Jr., secre- 
tary; and Harold von Schmidt-, treasurer. The national office of the organi- 
zation is at 120 East 57th Street, New York, N. T. 

The first number of the new organization's official bulletin, "In- 
dian Affairs", has been issued under date of June, 1937. 



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THE TAN OAK, FRIEND OF THE HOQPA VALLEY INDIANS; SHALL WE DESTBOY IT? 
By Leonard B. Eadtke, Forest Supervisor, U. S. Indian Service 



In the Northern California 
country grows the magnificent tan oak 
tree, friend and supporter of man. And 
within some fifteen to twenty-five years 
it will be gone - gone for a small cash 
return to those who exploit it. 

This great tree, which ia some- 
times called a cross between an oak and 
a chestnut, ranges along the Pacific 
Coast from Southern Oregon to Central 
California. It grows to a hundred and 
fifty feet in height and is often four 
feet in diameter. 



Sac red To The Indians 

The tan oak has been held 
sacred by the Indians of the Hoopa Val- 
ley and it figures in many of their 
legends. According to their folklore, 
a grove of these trees was miraculously 
planted on the north bank of Mill Creek, 
about a half-mile from its mouth. The 
medicine men of olden times foretold 
dire punishment to anyone who needless- 
ly injured a tan oak. What was the 
reason for this reverence? Perhaps be- 
cause the tan oak's acorns furnished 
one of the Indians' main food supplies 
in early days and now. It has saved 
thousands from starvation - white pio- 
neers and forty-niners as well as In- 
dians. Salmon and acorns - acorn soup 

and acorn bread - have been the foundation diet of many Northern California 

Indians. 

To this very day the Hoopa Indians hold an acorn festival, general- 
ly in the early part of October. 




Two Veterans Of The Sacred Grove 




After The Acorn Ceremonial 
(Medicine Woman On Left) 

A medicine woman presides and proceeds to prepare a meal of acorn 
soup from the newly matured acorns. One must never eat new acorns before 
this festival. When the soup is ready, everyone eats. The rocks used in 
cooking are then carefully placed upon a pile. New rocks are used each year 
and the mound is a high one - the accumulation of rnsJiy years, lessened, how- 
ever, by the occasional floods from the river. 



Making Acorns Into Food - Then And Now 

Every fall the Indians gathered the acorns in large "baskets. They 
gathered them literally by the ton. The acorns were stored and as needed, 
shelled and beaten to a flour. The next step was the removal of the tannin. 
A shallow hole was dug in the sand and the acorns put in it. Water was poured 
on and allowed to seep through into the sand. More and more was added until 
all the tannin had been leached out. This process lasted about twenty-four 
hours. The flour now had lost its tannin and with it the bitter taste. 



After-removal from the sand pit, the flour was put into a water- 
tight basket, water added and hot rocks dropped into the basket until the 
mixture boiled. Result: acorn soupl 

For bread, the moistened flour was fashioned into loaves and baked 
on heated stones. It was not eaten as European bread was, but was taken on 
hunting trips as rations. It was often moistened with water when eaten. 

Today - some two hundred years later - the process is still identi- 
cal except that the hand grinder has supplanted the stone mortar, a cloth 



and colander the sand, a pot and cookstove the hot rocks, and water "basket and 
a hake-oven the heated stones. 

It is a wholesome, palatable and frugal food and no ill effects have 
ever "been reported from its use. It tastes not unlike chestnuts. 



Acorn s As Keystone Of Hoopa Valley Ind ians ' Economy 

Not for man's food alone is the tan oak important. Practically all 
of the Hoopa Valley Indians own hogs which range the forests. They are rarely 
fed; the acorns keep them in prime condition. 

It was estimated that the Indians near Hoopa sold about 5,000 hogs 
during the spring of 1936 at an average price of $10 per head. Fifty thous- 
and dollars worth of hogs I About half of tnese came from the reservation 
while the remainder came from the Indian lands along the Klamath River. They 
were raised practically on acorns, since little hand feeding was done. (Hog 
buyers claim that they must pay less for acorn-fed hogs because the meat is 
soft; consequently some corn feeding is necessary to bring top prices.) Cat- 
tle too, depend partly on acorns for their winter range. 

Acorns of the tan oak have been fed to chickens on the Hoopa with 
very good results. One Indian said, "My wife peels and then grinds the acorns. 
She feeds this meal to the young chickens. They like it." Turkeys also eat 
the acorns with relish, apparently swallowing them whole. 

During the fall of 1933 bears became unusually troublesome along 
the Trinity and Klamath Rivers. They appeared literally by the hundreds, de- 
stroying orchards, ruining gardens and raiding barnyards. Why did these 
animals leave their sheltered haunts in the high mountains? They were hungry. 
That year the acorn crop had failed and they had little to eat. 

Deer, too, thrive on acorns. Fewer tan oaks mean fewer acorns and 
fewer acorns mean less game. 

Destruction Of The Tan Oak 

And now this noble tree which has never done man anything but good 
is slated for destruction. Why? Because the bark is valuable for the manu- 
facture of tannin, a chemical used in the tanning of leather. 

Small trees ten inches in diameter are stripped of their bark while 
standing ( jayhawked) ; larger ones are felled before being peeled. The bark 
.is packed out by animals to the road and from there trucked to the factory. 

When the operation is over, the small trees stand stark and bare 
while their larger brethren lie upon the ground with their trunks clean of 



bark and their foliage dry and tinder- 
like - perfect food for a forest fire. 
(It is considered too expensive to pile 
and "burn the "brush and the country is 
too rugged and the roads too few to at- 
tempt to "bring out the trunks.) Noth - 
ing is used commercially except the 
"bark. 

How much has "been spent 
fighting fires caused by this condition 
and what areas have been burned over, 
no one knows. 



And Does It Pay ? 

Now let us see if this bark 
business really pays. The bark peeled 
near Hoopa goes to a plant at Areata, 
California. The price paid at the 
plant is $14 per cord. (A cord is 
2,500 to 2,150 pounds of bark , depend- 
ing on the moisture content.) 




A "Jayhawked" Tree. (Note Point 
To Which Bark Has Been Peeled) 
It costs $4.00 to fell the 
trees-, peel the bark and bring it to the road and $7.00 to move a cord of 
bark from Hoopa to Areata, a total of $11.00 from tree to factory. The bark 
sells for $14.00 a cord; that is a profit of $3.00 per cord, without reckon- 
ing any other expenses. 

It is difficult to say how large an oak must be to yield a cord of 
bark, for many factors enter, such as the thickness of bark, the length of 
the trunk and the number of branches. But it is safe to say that a tree of 
some thirty inches in diameter - a veteran - would produce a. cord. In other 
words, a fine big oak brings in a profit of $3.00 in cash. If put at inter- 
est, at six per cent, this $3.00 would produce annually eighteen cents . 

This same 30-inch tree, alive and growing, will produce annually a 
thousand pounds of acorns . 

The Indians frequently sell acorns to nearby ranchers, usually at 
about a cent a pound. If they are not sold, the Indians say that they are 
worth a cent a pound to them as feed. If the trees are cut , the annual rev - 
enue from them will be eighteen cents ; if they are left as acorn producers . 
they are good for $10.00 a year . 



10 



The Case Agains't Cutting Tan Oaks 

To sum up the reasons against cutting tan oaks on Indian lands: 

The acorns are food to man. They are food as well for hogs, cattle, 
poultry, game and birds. The tan oak is a valuable protection tree, especial- 
ly on the steep hillsides. The cash return from the bark is only a small 
fraction of the cash value of the acorns produced. 

The cutting of the trees would produce very little additional em- 
ployment for the Indians and it would be a seasonal employment only. Those 
Indians who wish to peel bark can easily secure jobs on private lands. 

The bark business creates a tremendous fire hazard. There is a 
tragic waste of wood. The United States Forest Service has consistently 
turned a deaf ear to the pleas of the tan bark purchasers: evidently it is 
believed that cutting of tan oaks for their bark is not in accordance with 
intelligent forestry management. 

The Indians, especially the older ones, are in general, opposed 
to it. 



The tan bark industry is looking for new resources. It is only re- 
cently that an effort has been made to exploit the tan oaks of the Hoopa. 
Let us save them J 



CHARTER NEWS 



Charter elections held between Kay 20 and June 30 show the following 

results: 

For Agains t 

May 22 Bad River ( Great Lakes Agency) 92 125 

June 19 Kickanoo (Potawatomi Agency) 34 27 

» Sac and Fox " 9 

'• Iowa " 42 

June 25 Seneca-Cayuga (Quapaw Agency) 161 

The Seneca-Cayuga are the first group to be chartered under the 
Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act. 

The vote on the Jicarilla Aoache (New Mexico) constitution on July 
3 was: yes, 242; no, 2. 



11 




12 



DISTRICTS FOR HEADQUARTERS OE SUPERVISORY PERSONNEL ARE COORDINATED 

A coordinated plan of districting Indian Service jurisdictions is 
"being put into effect, with the object of achieving a more orderly and logi- 
cal system of field supervision. Heretofore, supervisory field employees 
have "been scattered in a large number of headquarters and each division had 
its own system of supervisory districts. 

The result has been that the superintendent of a jurisdiction, 
wishing to consult with the technical supervisors designated as consultants 
for his jurisdiction has had to visit or write to a number of headquarters, 
in some cases as many. as six or eight. Conversely, from the point of view of 
the supervisory personnel, employees dealing with a given jurisdiction have 
not necessarily had headquarters together and have been unable to consult and 
compare notes. 

The proposed district scheme is not a perfect solution of the pres- 
ent situation. The varying number of field employees under the direction of 
the several divisions and the consequent necessary difference in the number 
of headquarters which can be staffed, make it impossible to attain the ideal 
district scheme at this time. Fnile not perfect, the proposed scheme is, 
however, an improvement over the present situation and it will furnish a pat- 
tern toward which to work. 

It is not contennlated that employees will be summarily transferred, 
with no regard to their preferences and present obligations. It is intended, 
howevpr, that such transfers and such changes in designations of headquarters 
as are necessary will be accomplished at the earliest uossible date. 

Order No. 481, dated June 21, gives further details of the plan* 
This order also reaffirms the authority of superintendents in dealing with 
their own jurisdictions and restates the advisory and consultant relation- 
ship of the supervisory employees representing the various divisions. 

The map on the opposite page shows the plan of districting. There 
are ten in all: eight fall in western continental United States; the Seminole i 
Eastern Cherokee, New York and Mississippi Choctaw Agencies comprise District 
1; and Alaska forms District 10. Each district has a principal headquarters, 
in some cases two . 

It should be reiterated that this plan in no way affects the rela- 
tionship of jurisdictions to one another or the authority of superintendents. 
It simply looks toward a more common-sense and economical plan of location 
of supervisory personnel who represent the work of the various divisions. 



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OSCAR H. LIPPS 

On July 31 Oscar H. Lipps, having reached the age of sixty-five, 
will retire from the Indian Service. Although his active service in the In- 
dian field will he over, it will be many years before the influence that he 
has exerted in Indian affairs will become a memory. 

Mr. Lipps entered the Indian Service February 1, 1898, as a teacher. 
From this beginning he has progressed to some of the most responsible posi- 
tions in the Service. His record stands with those of others who have devoted 
their lives to the progress of the Indian race. 

Were there space, it would be interesting to note the changes in 
Indian Service procedure and conditions which have taken place during his 
service. When Mr. Lipps entered the Service pioneer conditions prevailed on 
many reservations; now, modern conveniences and methods of travel have vastly 
changed the working conditions and lives of Indian Service employees. 

During the closing months of his tenure of office, Mr. Lipps has de- 
voted his entire time and splendid energies to the organization of Indians 
under the Indian Reorganization Act. His services along this line alone have 
fully justified the confidence imposed in him. In this work, as well as in 
the many other activities with which Mr. Lipps has been closely identified, 
he has shown that he has at heart, always, the welfare of Indians. 

The entire Washington and Field staffs unite in wishing Mr. Lipps 
the fullest enjoyment of his well-earned rest from active Government service. 
If the sense of work well done brings any satisfaction, Mr. Lipps should have 
a happy memory of his exceptional Indian Service record. 

15 



CRIME PEEVED ION AMONG INDIANS 
By Wayne L. Morse, Dean of the University of Oregon School of Law 

In its original relations with the Indians, the Federal Government 
went on the theory that they were to he dealt with as self-governing nations 
or tribes rather than as individuals. To the tribal authority was left the 
task of maintaining order and administering justice. But as white settle- 
ments and conditions of life began to make their impression upon Indian pat- 
terns of living, this method became impossible to follow and Congress extended 
the Federal law to include the Indian in some regards, with certain excep- 
tions in recognition of tribal powers. It is, of course, true that Indians 
while upon their reservations are not subject to the jurisdiction of the sev- 
eral states, but only to that of the Federal Government. Moreover this Fed- 
eral authority, insofar as crimes committed by one Indian against another 
are concerned, is limited to eight major crimes - murder, manslaughter, rape, 
assault with a dangerous weapon, assault with intent to kill, larceny, arson 
and burglary. For other offenses committed on the reservation the Indian is 
not accountable to any established law. 

Matters of marriage and divorce are required to conform only to In- 
dian custom and not to the laws of the state. In those parts of the country 
where native tribal authority is crumbling or has to all intents and purposes 
vanished, a gap in the administration of the law exists. Certain Courts of 
Indian Offences, presided over by Indian judges, have been created to fill 
this gap. By constitutions granted under the Indian Reorganization Act, tribes 
are given authority to establish such laws and courts as are necessary for 
their own government. 



Tribal Custom And Opinion Still Powerful Factor For Civic Good 

In. order to understand social conditions which surround the com- 
mission and prevention of crime among Indian groups I think that an anecdote 
which Mr. Ray Huff, Federal Parole Executive, is fond of telling will give 
a good introduction. A short while ago an Indian was convicted of the mur- 
der of one of his neighbors and sentenced for a term to a Federal institution. 
Toward the conclusion of his sentence this Indian was placed on parole, but 
before the parole board granted the parole, inquiries were made of the chief 
and the tribal officials to determine their attitude toward his return to the 
community. One of the investigators asked if perhaps it would not be more 
effective to attempt to place the ex-prisoner in some other community so that 
he would not have to bear the ill-will of the murdered man's family. After 
some thought the chief expressed himself as being opposed to this plan and 
suggested that he be allowed to handle the matter. When the paroled Indian 
returned to his community after a few weeks, he was met by a committee of 
citizens. Prominent in the committee were several relatives of the murdered 



16 



man, who came to express their good feeling toward him and offered to assist 
him in his efforts to readjust. 

This story is illustrative of some of the "best elements of Indian 
community life. Custom is strong in the direction of protecting and assist- 
ing all members of the neighborhood. Good parole can he achieved in such an 
environment as this if officers are skillful in turning tribal authority in 
the direction of assisting in law enforcement. Those who have worked among 
Indians tell me that they have been highly successful in winning the coopera- 
tion of tribal officials in returning offenders to successful community life 
and that to a large extent the problem of parole supervision can be solved 
by winning tribal assistance. 

In the time when tribal authority was much stronger than it is now, 
tribal court ceremonies were ordinary occurrences. When a man was brought 
before the court and found guilty of the crime of which he was accused, he 
was usually sentenced to death, the execution to take place at a later date. 
The Indian was then dismissed and told to return on a certain day to meet his 
death. Invariably he would return. Tribal custom was strong enough to 
control his movements even when obedience to it meant the loss of his life. 

Much of the strength of Indian tribal customs still remains. If 
we are to deal effectively with the Indians and if we are to help them in 
achieving a well-ordered existence we must make use of this very valuable 
factor in their heritage. I have recently talked with a man, an Indian him- 
self, who has for some time done work with Indians placed on probation and 
parole. He tells me that the most effective, in fact, the only effective ■ 
technique upon which he has to rely is that of invoking tribal assistance 
and group restraint to help in preserving the conditions of the parole or 
probation which has been granted. 

In this same connection the inherent honesty of the Indian can be 
used to equal advantage. The same probation officer of whom I was speaking 
tells me that he has had few cases where, having asked a man's word that he 
would not violate his parole, this word was broken. Such a statement as 
this is difficult for most of us to grasp just at first. We are so accustomed 
to living in a society in which a man's word has become of little or no eon- 
sequence that we are startled by such evidence of fundamental integrity. We 
must recognize the fact that crime among the Indians can be controlled and 
prevented only to the extent that we can control and prevent crime among the 
great body of American citizens. The day for setting a good example is not 
past and it is not reasonable to suppose that as the Indians take on our 
mode of life, they will not also take on, in increasing amounts, the crimes 
which seem to grow out of our present way of life. The great wonder is that 
the extent of criminality among the Indians is as small as it is when we con- 
sider the destructive influences which have been brought to bear upon them by 
exposure to our civilized customs. 



17 



Culture Changes . Produce Difficulties 

In some of the Indian groups native tribal authority and organiza- 
tions have broken down and there has as yet been no satisfactory substitute 
established. These Indians straddle two cultures but are a t>art of neither. 
Recent research, particularly that which has been done by Clifford Shaw, in- 
dicates an apparent correlation between crime and social disorganization. 
Certain psychologists have pointed to crime as an inevitable consequence of 
a changing social order in which the status of individuals is relatively less 
fixed than before. Individuals in areas of cultural transition easily lose 
their social stability and crime may result. Perhaps the most important 
single factor which we must consider in thinking of the crime problem in re- 




The Indian Service Is Not Proud Of Most Of Its Jails. This New 

Court House And Jail At Pine Ridge, South Eake4a, 

Is One Of The Best. 

gard to Indian affairs is this •'culture conflict." Pa«t experience in deal- 
ing with crime and delinquency in the larger metropolitan areas has shown 
us the importance of successfully adjusting relationships between different 
racial groups who are forced to live in close proximity. 

Studies of crime among immigrants have for the most part discounted 
the once popular notion that a large part of the American crime problem could 
be traced to alien population. We find rather that a much higher degree of 
criminality exists among the first generation of American-born citizens of 
foreign parentage. The explanation for this fact lies in the "culture eofi- 
flict", or the Tack of a real basis for understanding between the first gen- 
eration and its offspring, a lack of common desires and traditions. 

In the mixed-blood Indian groups more than in the full-blood it is 
true that advancing educational opportunities for the younger generation 



18 



act to separate the interests and destroy mutual understanding between the 
younger members of the tribe and the elders. The same situation exists in 
regard to those young Indians who for one reason or another leave their na- 
tive communities and for a time live the life of the white world. Perhaps 
during the period of their absence a superior educational background is 
achieved and just as is the case with many returning college students, the 
young man looks at his old environment with new eyes. If he is not equipped 
with good powers of adjustment this new situation is likely to cause disaster. 
If the tribal authority of the group to which he belongs is still strong, 
more than likely it will succeed in readjusting him to the old life and in 
the process perhaps absorb some of the new life which he has brought back 
with him. Parole officers tell us that the degree of parole risk is less 
among Indian groups where the power of tribal custom is still most strong. 

The great task with which we are confronted, if we wish to develop 
adequate methods of crime prevention among the Indians - and by crime preven- 
tion I do not mean merely the regression of criminal tendencies, but rather 
the building of a well-rounded positive life — is that of building ladders 
which will bridge the chasm between these two cultures — that of the white 
man and that of the red. The great question which has confronted those in- 
terested in the administration of Indian affairs for many years has been 
how and of what material these ladders are to be and at what positions they 
are to be placed after they have been built. Let us consider these questions. 

Sta t istic s For Indians Do No t Indicate High Crime Rate 

The other factor, in addition to their social background, which we 
must have clearly in mind before we can devise effective methods of crime 
prevention in regard to the Indians, is the extent and type of crimes most 
frequently committed. 

A close analysis of available statistics indicates that the federal 
offenses for which Indians are most frequently convicted are larceny, theft, 
burglary, violation of federal liquor laws and criminal homicide. For the 
period 1930 to 1935 a total of 107 Indians were convicted for these offenses. 

As a general statement, it may be said that the Indians are peace- 
ful, law-abiding citizens who do not often commit serious reported crimes. 
This fact is particularly true of those who still live apart from white com- 
munities -and maintain to a high degree the former tribal customs and tradi- 
tions. Even among those Indians who have been rather closely intermixed with 
the white population there is very little evidence of crimes of violence. 
However, these favorable generalizations cannot apply to certain individual 
Indians. For the most part serious offenders among them are Indians who have 
drifted far afield of the old tribal ways and have to a large extent assumed 
white manners of life. They have become discontented and restless as they 
have been confronted with the attractions and temptations of more civilized 



19 



communities and have at the same time found themselves lacking the economic 
and social requirements for such a life as they would like to lead. In many 
cases the villages and communities of white people with which the Indian he- 
comes associated have rather low standards of social conduct and form a poor 
environment for persons who are attempting to adjust to new political, econ- 
omic and social standards. They have passed out of trihal control and no 
other method of social restraint has replaced the tribal inhibitions. 

Here again we see evidence of the "culture conflict" of which I 
spoke a few moments ago. These Indians, as they advance in their education, 
recede from the old culture of which they were a part and advance into a 
situation of which they know little. The Indian is naturally alarmed at the 
slight degree to which the old culture which he knew can be made to apply in 
the new environment. 

Trained Indians Might Help In Transition Period 

The tools which we have supplied to make this transition easier and 
less difficult for him have been for the most part crudely shaped and rudely 
used. It is quite possible that we have not yet made as much use as we might 
of trained Indians in advancing the educational and social progress of their 
friends and neighbors. Indian social workers, Indian teachers and missionaries 
have already proved their great potential value in interpreting the cultural 
values and social standards of the one race to the other. Experience in all 
fields of social endeavor has taught us the great importance of utilizing to 
the fullest extent that small proportion of progressive and aggressive individ- 
uals who are willing to take the lead in changing conditions of which they 
are a part. 

There Is No Single Answer For Crime Prevention 

What do we mean when we speak of crime prevention? The problem of 
crime is as broad as the problem of life itself - It is a complex and many- 
sided problem which must be attacked on all fronts and in all its aspects. 
It is not sufficient that we limit ourselves to the detection, apprehension 
and punishment of crime as has so long been our policy. In any progressive 
society there must be two parallel programs in dealing with crime and de- 
linquency - the immediate program of crime repression and the long-time pro- 
gram of crime prevention. We must bear in mind that there is no one solution 
to our problem. The abundance of sure cures and panaceas which are daily 
presented for our attention in the Department of Justice is frequently dis- 
couraging to those of us who are eagerly looking for signs of greatly increased 
public intelligence as relates to the problem of crime control. 

The answer to the solution of the crime problem does not lie alone 
in the solution of the problems surrounding poverty, inadequate housing, dis- 



20 



ease, political corruption, gang activities, or any other one manifestation. 
Research has taught us that crime is a result of a complex of forces in which 
the attitudes and behavior characteristics of delinquency are generated. It 
is not only the agencies which deal with the administration of criminal justice, 
"but practically all social institutions - the community, the home, the school, 
the recreation center, the church, the welfare agency - which must be called 
upon in waging an adequate program for crime prevention. We can reasonably 
expect success in reducing crime by exerting all our efforts to increase the 
effectiveness of these agencies in light of what has been and can be learned 




Community Buildings Like This One At Winnebago Agency, Nebraska, 

Are A Factor In The Prevention Of Delinquency. This Building, 

Built In 1936 From Indian Relief And Rehabilitation Funds, 

Is In Constant Use. 

from the histories of offenders. Careful observation of the situation both 
before and after the preventive program is instituted and close control of as 
many variables as possible should permit us to approach the truth about causal 
factors in crime. If we are to achieve a permanent and satisfactory control 
of crime, we must seek after the attitude and methods which have characterized 
the fight of medical and public health authorities in bringing disease under 
their control. The program which we must follow, if we are to achieve these 
things, is not likely to prove dramatic. Results will not soon be evident, 
but it is a job that must be done. 

Opportunity For Normal , Well - Rounded Life _Is Best Crime Prevent ive 

To a great extent, the problem of crime prevention is that of free- 
ing mankind from those impediments which deter him from developing a well- 
rounded personality. We can expect that crime will disappear only to the ex- 



21 



tent to which normal life - that is, the spontaneous expression of human na- 
ture - becomes possible for everyone. 

It is readily seen, then, that the first requirement of a sound 
policy of crime prevention in regard to Indian affairs is that we meet in 
a satisfactory manner the general economic and social needs of the Indians. 
The prevention of crime is intimately connected with the whole problem of 
Indian welfare. 

The part which education may play in the prevention of crime is, 
of course, an extremely important consideration.. Von Humboldt, the great 
German educator, well said that whatever you would put into the life of a 
nation you must first put into the curricula of its schools. It would seem 
that a well-equipped and intelligently administered public school system 
should be one of the most effective methods for consolidating divergent cul- 
tures. However, there is one practical consideration which cannot be omitted 
when we consider this theory. In order for Indian and white children to go 
to school together and achieve a mutual liking and respect, it is necessary 
to overcome first of all any difficulties which might be placed in the way 
of the Indian child on account of a lack of proper clothes or the necessary 
funds which he often lacks for making him socially acceptable in the school 
community. These small and very practical considerations sometimes escape 
our attention when we are thinking in general terms of social welfare, but 
let us remember that eventual success in the long-range program depends to 
a great extent on our ability to work out these very human if somewhat minor 
adjustments. It is at this point that sympathetic Indian Service officers 
who are highly sensitive to Indian problems can be of great aid in inter- 
preting significant details to Federal administrative officers. 



Improvement Of General Economic S tatus Essential 

What part can the Federal Government play in bringing about a solu- 
tion to the problems of crime control and prevention among the Indians? Per- 
haps one of the most practical programs which it can institute would be that 
of raising the general economic status and providing enlarged opportunities 
for vocational training. The passage of the Wheeler-Howard Act in 1934 and 
the Thomas-Eoger8 Act in 1936 promises some accomplishment in this regard. The 
general provisions of these acts move in the direction of increasing voca- 
tional opportunities and making possible the acquisition of more and better 
lands for cultivation. 

Certainly the true function of the Office of Indian Affairs is to 
deal -justly with the approximately 350,000 Indians in this country and to do 
everything in its power to assist them in becoming real citizens, economically 
self-sustaining, with a sound education and a sound physical condition, capable 
of controlling their own destinies. In order to achieve these broad objec- 
tives, it is necessary, first of all, that we have constantly before us the 
best obtainable knowledge of the Indian situation. The Office of Indian Af- 
fairs has been very alert in obtaining such information. Research of the na- 



22 



ture of the Meriam report, scientific in its approach, should he continuous. 
It is far too often the case that research studies of real value are greeted 
with great enthusiasm when they first appear and shortly afterwards their 
recommendations and suggestions are forgotten. Certainly the Meriam Heport 
is worthy of all the attention that can he given it. 

A non-political and progressive administrative setup must he main- 
tained. Competent personnel with an inherent understanding of the prohlems 
and personalities of Indians, trained in the technique of social work, with 
a "broad experience in the execution of these general principles as applied 
specifically to the Indian people, must he attracted to and held in the In- 
dian Service. The strong efforts which the Indian Service has exerted in 
this regard are to he commended. For any ultimate solution to the Indian 
prohlem, it is necessary that we have a public opinion educated to the needs 
and responsibilities involved in the handling of this situation. It is the 
task of the Federal Government to arouse this public interest by dispensing 
the true facts to the public at large. Among the most important things which 
the Federal Government has to contribute are, of course, adequate funds for 
the continuance and expansion of a progressive Indian policy. 

From the facts which have been disclosed in the Meriam Report and 
from other testimony it seems that the path along which the Indian is destined 
to move is that which will bring about the promptest and most practicable 
change from the Indian to the white way of living. 

In general we may say that the great problem involved in the admin- 
istration of justice among the Indians is that of achieving a proper balance 
between the two forces now being exerted in the direction of social control, 
tribal authority on the one hand and Federal or state legal authority on the 
other. From a practical point of view it would seem that the best course for 
us to follow is that of encouraging and bolstering up the ancient method of 
social control so far as it will hold. Where tribal authority begins to 
crumble or show signs of permanent weakness there is the place where we must 
provide suitable and well-adapted outside legal restraints. This task of 
maintaining an adequate balance and avoiding any overlapping of authority is 
a delicate and difficult process. Success can be achieved only by the skill- 
ful manipulations of administrators who clearly understand the significance 
of their actions. Our job is not to tear down or to make inroads on the na- 
tive culture of the Indian race; it is rather to reinforce their culture in 
the places where it must inevitably break down with such additions as we can 
devise. 

A scientific approach by means of research, adequate national ap- 
propriations, an understanding and well-supported Indian Service, a general 
spirit of cooperation and an informed and interested public opinion are among 
the forces which we must mass for any eventual solution to the Indian problem. 

Note : This article was excerpted from an address given at the conference 
of Indian Service Law Enforcement Officers held in Denver in March. 



23 



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25 



REPORT ON PENSION BILL TELLS STORY OP WOUNDED KNEE MASSACRE 



There is pending in the pres- 
ent Congress a bill (H. R. 2535) for the 
benefit of victims and heirs of victims 
of the Wounded Knee Massacre of 1890. 
The bill is similar to a bill intro- 
duced in the last Congress which failed 
of passage; and its chances of passing 
the present Congress do not appear to 
be great. 

In his report to the House 
Committee on Indian Affairs on the 
bill, the Acting Secretary of the In- 
terior reviews the unhappy story of 
the massacre. Several excerpts are 
given below. 

"The Wounded Knee incident 
properly has been called a 'massacre. 
The historical facts are here set 
down as a basis for judgment by the 
Congress. 

"The unrest and distress 
among the Sioux bands had increased 
in its intensity through a number of 
years prior to 1890. The causes of 
the Sioux misery need not here be re- 
capitulated. There had been ruthless 
violations of treaties and agreements 
and numerous administrative abuses. 
It scarcely was possible for the In- 
dians themselves to know what spots 
they were permitted to inhabit and 
what they were forbidden to inhabit, 
so sweeping and so casual had been 
the violations and unilateral abroga- 
tions of contract on the part of the Government. One of the responses of the 
Sioux Indians, as of numerous other tribes similarly distressed, was the 
flight into messianic religious revivals. The messianic revival among the 
Sioux was known as the Ghost Dance Religion. 




Little Chief, aged Sioux, 
who, as a member of the United 
States Police Force was present at 
the Wounded Knee Massacre on 
December 28, 1890. 



26 



"It is important to note that these messianic revivals had taken 
place from time to time for many years among many Indian tribes and in no 
instance had they thrown the Indians into aggressive warfare with the whites. 
Neither acts of war, nor massacres nor depredations, had resulted from the 
numerous messianic revivals. This record was known to the Government at the 
time. 

"The four hundred or more Sioux Indians at the Wounded Knee site 
consisted of family groups - men, women and children. The camp site was sur- 
rounded by troops of the 7th Cavalry and artillery was trained upon the In- 
dian encampment. The Indians were called upon to surrender their weapons, 
and this they proceeded to do. Be it noted that their weapons were not nec- 
essarily weapons of war. These Indians, at this time, lived by the chase, so 
that in giving up their weapons they were exposing themselves to possible 
starvation. Nevertheless, the surrender of weapons proceeded. 

"At this point, the narrative of General Miles, contained in his 
letter cited above may be quoted: 

***** Colonel Forsyth ***** demanded the 
surrender of the arms from the warriors. This was complied 
with by the warriors going out from camp and placing the 
arms on the ground where they were directed. Chief Big Foot, 
an old man, sick at the time and unable to walk, was taken 
out of a wagon and laid on the ground. 

While this was being done a detachment of soldiers 
was sent into the camp to search for any arms remaining there, 
and it was reported that their rudeness frightened the women 
and children. It is also reported that a remark was made by 
some one of the soldiers that 'when we get the arms away from 
them we can do as we please with them!, indicating that they 
were to be destroyed. Some of the Indians could understand 
English. This and other things alarmed the Indians and a 
scuffle occurred between one warrior who had a rifle in his 
hand and two soldiers. The rifle was discharged and a massa- 
cre occurred; not only the warriors but the sick Chief Big 
Foot and a large number of women and children who tried to 
escape by running and scattering over the prairie were hunted 
down and killed. 

The official reports make the number killed 90 war- 
riors and approximately 200 women and children. 

The action of the Commanding Officer, in my judg- 
ment at the time, and I so reported, was most reprehensible. 
The disposition of his troops was such that in firing upon 
the warriors they fired directly toward their own lines and 
also into the camp of the women and children and I have re- 
garded the whole affair as most unjustifiable and worthy of 
the severest condemnation. 



27 



"The recital by General Miles gives an incomplete picture. The 
files of the Indian Office contain a remarkable stenographic report of the 
testimony of the Sioux delegation at Washington February 11, 1891. This 
eye-witness testimony emphasizes the fact that the men and the women of the 
tribe were in different places at the time when the killing got under way 
and that they fled in different directions, so that the slaughter of the wom- 
en and children necessarily was an action of massacre pure and simple. A 
portion of the testimony follows: 

AMERICAN HORSE. The men were separated as has 
already been said from the women and they were surrounded by 
the soldiers. Then came next the village of the Indians and 
that was entirely surrounded by the soldiers also. When the 
firing began, of course the people who were standing immediate- 
ly around the young man who fired the first shot were killed 
right together, and then they turned their guns, Hotchkiss 
guns, etc., unon the women who were in the lodges standing 
there under a flag of truce and of course as soon as they 
were fired upon they fled, the men fleeing in one direction 
and the women running in two different directions. So that 
there were three general directions in which they took flight. 

There was a woman with an infant in her arms who 
was killed as she almost touched the flag of truce and the 
women and children of course were strewn all along the cir- 
cular village until they were dispatched. Right near the 
flag of truce a mother was shot down with her infant; the 
child not knowing that its mother was dead, was still nurs- 
ing, and that was especially a very sad sight. The women 
as they were fleeing with their babes on their backs were 
killed together, shot right through, and the women who were 
very heavy with child were also killed. All the Indians 
fled' in these three directions and after most all of them had 
been killed, a cry was made that all these who were not killed 
or wounded should come forth and they would be safe. Little 
boys who were not wounded came out of their places of refuge, 
and as soon as they came in sight a number of soldiers sur- 
rounded them and butchered them there. 

Of course we all feel very sad about this affair. 
I stood very loyal to the Government all through those 
troublesome days and believing so much in the Government 
and being so loyal to it, my disappointment was very strong, 
and I have come to Washington with a very great blajne on my 
heart. Of course it would have been all right if only the 
men were killed; we would feel almost grateful for it. But 
the fact of the killing of the women and more especially the 
killing of the young boys and girls who are to go to make up 
future strength of the Indian people, is the saddest part of 
the whole affair and we feel it very sorely. 

*************** 
28 



"The bill H. R. 2535 would authorize an appropriation in the name 
of each victim killed in the massacre of the sum of one thousand dollars 
($1,000), and in the name of each victim wounded in the massacre an equal 
amount to be paid to the survivor or to he distributed among the heirs. The 
date of the Wounded Knee Massacre was December 29, 1890, or forty-six years 
ago. The massacre can be viewed both as an injury to the individuals who 
were killed or wounded and as an injury to the entire Sioux Tribe. Redress, 
therefore, could be attempted through the method of pensioning individuals 
or through creating some new advantage for the tribe as a whole, as, for 
example, a more generous relief to the indigent and infirm, or the establish- 
ment of an orthopedic hospital for all the Sioux, etc., etc. 

"In reporting on H. R. 11778, the 74th Congress, the Acting Direc- 
tor of the Bureau of the Budget transmitted a lengthy communication from the 
Acting Secretary of War recommending adverse action on this bill. 

"Tne Acting Director of the Bureau of the Budget has advised 'that 
the proposed legislation would not be in accord with the program of the 
President.' " 



NO FEDERAL AID FOR THIS SIOUX GIRL! 



By Rose S. Hallam - Pierre, South Dakota 




Mary Swift Hawk 

the leading state official 
well on modest incomes. 



In Fort Pierre, Stanley County, South 
Dakota, there is the best examule of an "Indian 
At Work" which it has been my privilege to see 
during a residence of many years among the Indians. 

This little town of about seven hundred 
inhabitants, mainly white, lies in the heart of 
the drought and grasshopper section, the result 
being «iat a very large percentage of its popula- 
tion has had to resort to some form of relief. 
Yet, in the midst of all this unemployment and 
distress, lives Mary Swift Hawk, a Lower Brule 
Sioux who came to this town about six years ago 
and in tha.t time has established for herself an 
enviable reputation as a dressmaker and designer. 
Her customers come largely from the more prosper- 
ous little city of Pierre, immediately across the 
Missouri River, via bridge, and in which is located 
the Sta,te Capitol. She has designed and made 
gowns for the Governor's daughter, the wives of 
s and many young girls who take pride in dressing 



29 




30 



FORT HALL LEADERS SPEAK AT " INDIAN DAY " AT POCATELLO . IDAHO 

"Indian Day", held May 23 at the Congregational Church in Pocatello, 
Idaho, was attended this year toy more than two hundred Fort Hall Indians. The 
purpose of these annual gatherings has toeen to promote understanding and friend- 
ship between the citizens of Pocatello and the Indians of Fort Hall. 

Charlie Bell, Indian judge, and John Ballard, an Indian leader, spoke 
at the meeting this year. 

Charlie Bell's greeting follows: 

"I will say a few words: 

"God has created the human people on this earth, therefore, we are 
living on this earth. Also, people have toeen created on the other side of 
the ocean and the foreigners and different nationalities on the other side 
of the ocean. They all speak the different language over there and also the 
people in America have different languages. And the people have come from 
across the ocean into this country - just like wild horses, different creeds 
come together. We all have one tolood. I am glad invite to make this little 
speech here to people. I am glad too that the white people have toegun to know 
the Indians so they invite the Indians to come to their church nowadays. It 
is a good thing that we should all toe friendly and mingle together. Some of 
our people have toelong to different church; even if they go to their own church- 
es they should come here to white man's church. This is a great lesson to us 
why we meet to go in the church like this. This church is teaching us not 
to do the wrong thing as get many people in trouble - steal things, do some- 
thing toad; that is what the church is doing, teaching us the right way to live. 
We should distinguish the toad and the good so we live the right lives. That 
is all I have to say." 

John Ballard spoke as follows: 

"I am glad my friends invite me to say a few words, so I will say 
a few words. We Indians are here today with you, women, men and children. 
Today I think that my people are not afraid of anything. Tears ago when the 
white people meet with Indians in toig crowd they always wanted something of 
the Indians. You have invite us Indians here to your church and we are happy 
to toe here with you; we are feeling just atoout like you do; we are happy. 

"For the whites there is a Bitole, they started, they learned from 
it ... The Indians were created on the other side of the ocean and God has 
give them power to toelieve in spirits, also give them right to think atoout 
the way that they should live. God has give us how to pray to Him ... says 
we all have different languages, different tritoes, different nationalities, 



31 



but God has give us that. They are very few people live over there who know 
how to pray the Indian way . . . hut the young people are taking up another 
kind, the white way. The way the Indians pray, that is coming to be done away 
with, hut all the young people are becoming education: they are going to take 
up the white way of praying and believing in God.- 

"You, my white friends, notice my people here with you today: every 
time you stand up they get up with you; they have a book in their hands; they 
sing with you. I have noticed that they took up a collection; I notice my 
people give what they could afford to give. The Indians believe in God, there- 
fore, they give what they could give. My people are on reservations, they 
hold meetings just like you do - they pray to God. 

"I am glad that you white people have invited my people to your 
church; I think it is a good thing for our people to come here and go to 
church with you. I don't see nothing wrong with it. Over six years ago the 
white people never used to invite Indian to their church like this. I am 
glad to know that my white friends thinks something of the Indians and in- 
vite Indians to come to their church. I am glad that they are helping us, 
leading us in the right way. I believe that you white people know the here- 
after of our young Indians: they are going to be educated. Some of them 
get marry with the white. 

"I am not an educated man, so therefore, these few words I have 
said to you are all I can think of." (Interpreted by Mr. Cosgrove.) 



FOUR GENERATIONS AT STANDING ROCK , NORTH DAKOTA 




Pour Generations Of One Family Of Standing Rock Sioux, 

All Of Whom Attended The Porcupine Community Extension 

Meeting Held This Spring. 



32 



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CLASS AT SANTA FE INDIAN SCHOOL, NEW MEXICO 



Photograph by T. Harmon Parkhurst 



33 



EARLY INDIANS OF MONTANA 

(Used With Permission Of Federal Writers' Project, 
Works Progress Administration) 

Prior to white occupation, the trihes in Montana east of the Rockies 
were the Assiniboines in the northeast; the Sioux, overlapping into Montana 
from the Dakotas; the Minnetarees, also called Gros Ventres of the River; the 
Snakes (Shoshone), widely scattered, living both east and west of the moun- 
tains; the Cheyennes in southeastern Montana; and the Arapahos (White Clay- 
men), si so called Gros Ventres of the Prairie. 

It should be noted that not all Gros Ventres (big bellies) were of 
one stock, the name having been apnlied by early Canadian trappers both to 
the Arapahos who were called Gros Ventres of the Prairie and to the Minne- 
tarees who were called Gros Ventres of the River. The two tribes were of 
different stock, spoke a different language and were bitter enemies. A 
third tribe called Gros Ventres of the Mountains, or Atsina by their Black- 
feet allies, spoke the same dialect as the Arapahos and were closely akin. 

Of the eastern tribes, the Blackfeet and Crows were predominant. 
The Blackfeet, a loose confederacy of three tribes, consisted of the Pecunis 
(Piegans), the Bloods, and the Blackfeet proper. They were of one blood, of 
Algonquian stock. The Blackfeet cammed and hunted over a vast area from near 
the North Saskatchewan River in Canada to the headwaters of the Missouri 
River. They were cleanly in personal habits, famous horsemen, warlike and 
ruthless in battle. In their campaigns they crossed the Rocky Mountains and 
ranged far to the west and south. They are known to have visited the Great 
Salt Lake in Utah. 

The Crows (Absarokee) were Hidatsa and formerly lived along the 
lower reaches of the Missouri. According to legend, because of the quarrel 
between two- women over a buffalo paunch, the Hidatsa s-olit, one faction be- 
ing the Minnetarees and the other the Crows who migrated westward to the 
"land of the lone mountains" and finally settled along the Yellowstone, Big 
Horn, Powder and Wind Rivers where they became the most powerful of the 
southern Montana, tribes. The Crows were always friendly to the whites. 

The Cheyennes who visited LaSalle's Fort near the present site of 
Peoria, Illinois, in 1680, and who probably preceded the Sioux in occupying 
the upner Mississippi region, were of the Algonquian family. However, their 
Algonouian roots are apparent today only linguistically. According to their 
traditions, the Cheyennes were the first Indians to use horses in eastern 
Montana. A tribe called Horse Indians by Verendry in his journal of his ex- 
pedition of 1742-43 may have been Cheyennes. 



34 



Hie Snakes belonged to the great Shoshonean family, one of the 
irost widely known of North American Indians. The territory over which the 
Snakes roamed and hunted stretched from the Big Horn Mountains to the Coastal 
Range. Sacajawea who accompanied the Lewis and Clark Expedition was a Sho- 
shone woman, stolen in her youth hy the Minnetarees. 

The Arapahos, who were of Algonquian stock, ranged over a wide ter- 
ritory, covering the headwaters of the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers. They 
were variously allied with both Blackfeet and Cheyennes. 

Earliest inhabitants west of the main range in Montana were a 
Salish people of whom little is known. Skeletal remains show them to have 
been short and stocky like modern Coast tribes, but unlike the Kootenais and 
Flatheads who inhabit western Montana today. The position of the skeletons 
at the time of discovery indicates flexed burials in pits. Charcoal remains 
suggest cremation which is not historically a Flathead custom. Trinkets and 
adornments, beads made from abalone shell, and salt water molluscs indicate 
coastal origin. Legends about these prehistoric Indians tell of a stupid, 
cruel, courageous, but foolhardy people who lived in pit dwellings which were 
little more than holes in the ground. 

The various Flathead Tribes are undoubtedly of Salish origin as 
indicated by their language and a few religious and ceremonial customs. In 
other respects - in stature and manner of living, they more resemble Plains 
Indians than they resemble Coast Indians. Their name is a misnomer, as thes'e 
interior Salish never flattened the heads of infants. This was a practice 
only of Coast tribes. In religious ceremonies the use of the double lean-to 
instead of the conventional teepee seems a holdover from the communal house 
of the Coast tribes. The ceremonial dances are different from the Sun Dance 
of the Plains; they had no secret societies within the tribes; and they were 
fish eaters. Otherwise, they are much more like Plains Indians than Coast 
Indians. Anthropologists account for this fact through their yearly migra- 
tions to the Plains after they came into possession of horses some time in 
the eighteenth century. 

The Flatheads dwelt along the shores of Flathead Lake in the Bitter- 
root Valley and on the west slopes of the Rocky Mountains, frequently cross- 
ing the Divide to hunt along the Judith and Musselshell Rivers. They 
recognized kinship and generally enjoyed fraternal relations with the Pend 
d'Oreilles, the Kalispells, the Coeur d'Alenes, the Colvilles and the Spokanes 
who were also of Salish stock farther west. They also intermarried with the 
Nez Perce, a Shahaptian Tribe living along the Clearwater River in what is 
now Idaho. 

The Kootenais of northwestern Montana and southern British Columbia 
are usually accounted a distinct stock (Kitunahan), but their speech has 
some similarities to Algonquian which may indicate an original relationship. 



35 



They are believed to have lived formerly on the east side of the Rockies 
whence they were driven west by their traditional enemies, the Blackfeet. 
The Kootenais were more warlike than their western neighbors and were the 
greatest hunters of whitetail deer and the finest tanners of buckskin of 
all the Indians. They were noted for their birch hark canoes, with under- 
shot ends, resembling those used on the Amur River in Siberia. They were 
sun worshipoers, which is a Plains characteristic. They hunted and traded 
peaceably with the Salish but they were bitter enemies of the Blackfeet 
with whom, like the Flatheads, they were constantly at war. 

The Bannocks of Shoshonean stock ranged over a portion of south- 
western Montana and inha.bited roughly the same territory as the Nez Perces, 
the main tribe of the Shahaptian family. 

After they possessed horses, the Plateau Indians made regular mi- 
grations across the mountains to hunt buffalo and engaged in many a pitched 
battle with both Blackfeet and Crows. With the Crows at times they had 
periods of truce but with the Blackfeet, never. 

These were the tribes, east and west of the Divide, that white men 
found in what is now Montana. 



INDIAN CLAIMS COMMISSION BILL DEFEATED 



The Indian Claims Commission Bill, S. 1902, which had passed the 
Senate during the la.st session of this Congress, met defeat in the House on 
June 23 by a vote of 176 to 73. 

This bill, which had been proposed during the previous administration 
and advoca.ted as far back as 1913, was aimed at a solution of the Indian 
claims tangle. It would have set up a commission of three men, whose duty 
it would have been to receive or uncover evidence bearing on the merit or 
lack of merit of Indian claims, to assemble complete information on claim 
cases and to report their findings to Congress, with recommendations for dis- 
position of cases. Recommendations might have ranged from direct settlement 
by Congress, to the enactment of a jurisdictional bill taking the case in 
question into the Court of Claims, to dismissal of cases without merit. The 
Commission would have been in no sense a court but its findings of fact would 
have been admissible as evidence in the Court of Claims, thereby making pos- 
sible the avoidance of duplication of effort in establishing evidence. 

Members of the House who spoke against the bill in the debate on 
the floor gave as reasons for their opposition their feeling that the hill 
would set up a needless additional government agency and their fear of the 
opening up of millions of dollars in claims against the government . 



36 



A TRADER OK THE PORT PECK RESERVATION _IN MONTANA SPEAKS 
By G. A. Lundeen, President and Manager of the Fort Peck Mercantile Company 

Since the early spring of 1913 I have been trading with the Indians 
here at Poplar. During all that period up to 1928 all of the Indians had 
money to their credit and spent it freely in buying necessities of life, such 
as groceries, meats and clothing and also for building and repairing of homes. 
In these prosperous years, many of them had automobiles and obtained a great 
deal of enjoyment from the use of this new way of traveling. 

In these later years the tribal funds were almost exhausted, the 
crops were poor and the white renters of their land were unable to meet the 
lease payments. This meant hard times for them as well as their white neigh- 
bors. 

During the good years many of the Indian people farmed and made 
good at it. To many of these that had crops planted I extended credit during 
the summer months and they were among the first to come in and pay their bills 
when their crops were harvested. In all my dealings with the Indians, I have 
found that most of them appreciated any help extended to them when they were 
in straits and that they would come in and pay me as soon as they obtained 
money from leases, crops or other sources. Of course, there are always a few 
who forget this help and try to avoid paying up; the percentage of such peo- 
ple, however, is no greater among Indians than among white people. 

It has been an interesting game to trade with them and I have en- 
joyed it during these years, even during this discouraging period when there 
were almost no crops and their revenues were very small. 

I am hoping that this territory will again be blessed with plenty 
of moisture so that both the Indians and the whites can again enjoy farm- 
ing and stock raising as in the past. 



CROW PAIR TO BE HELD AUGUST 30 TO SEPTEMBER 4 



The Crow Pair will be held August 30 to September 4. This annual 
event, which includes live stock shows, races, dances and rodeo events, will 
this year include a historical pageant to be presented on September 1. 



37 



FIGHTING ONE OF AGRICULTURE'S GREAT PLAGUES AT 













TRAP 












\ 






,/, 










.'•"■••..■"*•■• 


J. > 








/* ■ 


•'.'■•V -■' 


'«'/ 








A; 




' /. 




















/ «* • 


• •'. : ■.'•."/ 






■i;*v 




• • 


■ • * • *• /• * 


."*;/ 


J*V. 


. -l :'."0 








i* •' 




; •/."••" 


'' !*• - '•* .C*\ 




/ ' * " ■ 






■■•*•!#• 


w ' \ ■»• / • •«! 




'»*■*•*• •* 


V -. 


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• .'• r . ''- '• 


;-•'-; a !■'-•# 




* • , „ 


• * 


; i *-, 


• '• • "• ; .' 

















One method of fighting Mormon 
crickets is shown here. A swarm of 
crickets is found advancing across 
a field, a.s indicated in the dia- 
gram on the left. A temporary gal- 
vanized iron fence is laid around 
the area. (Last year a fence over 
a mile long was used.) The crickets 
follow the fence and converge toward 
the trap. Oil is sprinkled in the 
trap, and the crickets are then re- 
moved and "burned. 




Crickets Following The Fence 



38 



WESTERN SHOSHONE AGENCY . NEVADA - MORMOI CRIGKETS 




The Fences Converge Near The Trap 



Slipping into the trap. A pit 
4' x 4' x 4 1 was filled in a 
single night. 




39 



NAVAJO TRIBAL COUNCIL SENDS DELEGATES 
TO TESTIFY IN SENATE SUBCOMMITTEE HEARINGS 



Mention was made in the July 1 issue of "Indians At Work" of the 
hearings held by a subcommittee of the Committee on Indian Affairs to hear 
the testimony of a group of Navajo Indians headed by Jacob Morgan. Subse- 
quently, on July 3, the Committee heard Commissioner Collier, Mr. Fryer and 
a group of Navajos which the tribal council sent in at its own expense. The 
statements of these witnesses have been mimeographed and a limited number of 
copies are available at the Office of Indian Affairs in Washington. 

Council spokesmen criticized the Morgan group for making mislead- 
ing statements in their discussions on the reservation and for their lack of 
a constructive program. 

They spoke against allotment, the possibility of which had been 
raised by the Morgan group's attorney and against the splitting of the tribe. 
They asked assurance of the holding of tribal assets, including the oil in 
the Eastern Navajo area, for the tribe as a whole. 

In speaking of the stock reduction program, Dogol-Chee-Bikis, one 
of the delegates said that reductions of small owners had been voluntary, 
and made, in many cases, unwisely, because of the desire for immediate cash. 
"To begin with," he said, "when the reduction program first came in, it was 
talked about for a long time and the results were found, one after another, 
that the man with 100 head of sheep should not reduce, I think that we, as 
the Navajo Tribe, have abused that, ourselves. We are more responsibile for 
the reduction, the way it has been carried on, than those people who are in 
authority. For that reason, I do not think the blame should entirely fall 
upon those who are in authority, but that we should be included in that." ,., 

"Nobody on the reservation favors the reduction, because they know 
that it is taking away from their livelihood and their money; but, nevertheless, 
it is just like a baby that is sick: it has to have castor oil in order that 
it might get well. We like our sheep, but nevertheless we have to take the 
medicine of reduction, because, considering the range, we know that the sheep 
have to be fed off the range, and we know that the income comes from the range. 
The foundation of the whole thing - of the whole situation is the range." 

In conclusion, the delegates urged the passage of the New Mexico 
Navajo Boundary Bill , mention of which had been omitted by the Morgan delega- 
tion in reviewing reservation troubles and needs. "I plead with Senator 
Chavez," said one of the delegates "for I think that he knows for a fact that 
the Navajos want land and that he should give us that land that lies on the 
eastern side of the reservation. We want that extension. Our people need it, 
and our people are entitled to it." 

The other members of the group were Henry Talliman, chairman of the 
tribal council, Frank Mitchell and Howard Gorman. 

40 



nilllAN OFFICE POLICY SUMMARIZED 



The letter below, written by Commissioner Collier in reply to an 
inquiry from the Haskin Information Bureau, gives a brief statement of pres- 
ent-day Indian administrative policy. 

Gentlemen: 

Responding to your query, the present Indian policy is to 
help Indians to get on their own feet individually and collectively, 
and materially and morally. On the negative side, the policy is to 
stop dictating to Indians how they shall live, what their religious 
affiliations should he and so forth. 

We are trying to supply landless Indians with land for sub- 
sistence farming and grazing. We are administering a credit system 
to enable Indians to finance their own enterprises. We are encourag- 
ing self-government, under the terms of the Indian Reorganization Act 
of June 18, 1934. 

We are trying to provide schools equal to the best white 
schools and under the Reorganization Act we are supplying to Indians 
an opportunity for advanced education in colleges and professional 

schools. 

We are working with the Indians to conserve their timber, 
water and soil resources, depleted in the past through reckless over- 
use. 

Indian administration today has no dogma or set pattern 
for even one tribe of Indians and certainly not for 250 tribes, each 
with a past, a present and a future peculiar to itself. Half of the 
Indians, are living like white people and will go on out into the 
white world. The others, we hope will strengthen their group iden- 
tities, while at the same time participating more fully in the gen- 
eral life of the country. 

Sincerely yours, 

(Signed) John Collier 

Commissioner 



41 



Ml 
Ol 
^11 
Ol 
Ol 

Ml 

Ml 

e*l 
tel 

«*l 




o 



•a 

a 



42 



PUBLIC HEALTH WORK AMONG CHILDREN AT THE CHEYENNE RIVER AGENCY . SOUTH DAKOTA 

By Phoebe Sheppaxd, Field Nurse 



Some of the most interesting phases of public health work at the 
Cheyenne River Agency are with the children. 

First, there were thorough physical examinations of all the pupils 
at the beginning of the school semester; then there were vaccinations. 

ffhen contagious illnesses occur, there is always the possibility of 
epidemic. During the month of November there were four cases of scarlet fever 
in the dormitories of the Cheyenne River Boarding School. After these chil- 
dren had been diagnosed as having scarlet fever, they were taken to the hospi- 
tal at Pierre, since it was not feasible to care for them at the Agency hospi- 
tal which was then under reconstruction. The physician requested that the 
nurse supervise and instruct the children in throat gargling twice daily and 
the brushing of teeth with salt solution three times daily. The use of car- 
bolic soap in hand washing was also stressed. All dishes used in the dining- 
room were sterilized. 

No further cases of scarlet fever occurred. The splendid coopera- 
tion of the scnool faculty in carrying out the orders of the physician ana 
in helping the field nurse was no small factor in the control of this out- 
break and deserves special commendation. These measures and the strict quar- 
antine observance of personnel and children at this school prevented what may 
have been an epidemic 

Health in the day schools is watched too. Below is a copy of a 
health report of eight children from one of the day schools. 



PUPILS 


AGE 


HEIGHT WEIGHT 
1st 2nd 1st 2nd 


TEETH 


CORRECTIONS 


Girl 
Boy . 
Girl 
Boy . 
Girl 
Girl 

Girl 

(A-Absf 


» • • • 

snt) 


16... 

7... 

11... 

13... 

7... 

14... 


65 65|.. .108... 121 

48. . ..48 45. . . 58 

58. ...58^. . . 71... 79 
A. . . .61. . .. A. .. 90 

54 54.... 54... 59 

53.... 53.... 73... 83 

62 62§... 87... 93 


1C 

7C 

OK 

1C 

OK 


• • • 

• • • 

• • • 

.... 


. Dirty Teeth 
Scabies - Treated 

Conjunctivities - 

Treated 
Dermatitis - Treated 



43 



All of these children live in homes where there is a patient with 
active pulmonary tuberculosis. We were consequently glad to note the increase 
in weight on the part of all eight. The lunch served at noon at the school 
has undoubtedly contributed toward the general improvement in health of the 
children. 



This group at Green Grass Day School 
hold up their health chart and show 
on their fingers how many pounds 
each has gained during the time 
recorded. 





A. young Sioux mother - bashful, but proud 

of her baby. She had prenatal care and, 

after her baby was born, had infant 

hygiene instruction also. 



Tired Of The Clinic. 




44 



THE HEIRSHIP LAMP PROBLEM - AN ANSWER SUGGESTED 



Commissioner Collier, in his editorial in the June 1 issue of 
"Indians At Work", dealt with the complications of the heirship land system 
and its costliness. He asked for suggestions from readers. One of the re- 
plies is given "below: 

Indian Organization Suggested As A Tool To Unravel The Land Tangle 

If Indians organized under charters could realize the great cost 
to themselves and the Government in maintaining current chain of title to 
the inherited land estates, they would take immediate steps, individually or 
collectively, to "bring about a solution of this problem. 

Nearly all Indians would like to have their organization a going 
concern so that it would "become, in fact, a moving, living power for the 
welfare of all members. With intelligent management by business-like of- 
ficers, there is nothing to stop any Indian organization from becoming such 
a body. 

In any organized institution, in order to entitle one to the bene- 
fits thereof and a vote in its policies, some definite responsibility must 
be assumed by that member. How many Indians have a financial interest in 
their chartered corporations? Aside from their moral support, few Indians 
have invested any private capital in their corporations. 

Every Indian land owner may assist his corporation and save his 
family future probate expenses by conveying his land interests to the United 
States in trust for his tribe or corporation, subject to the condition that 
the Indian grantor and members of his family shall have the income and oc- 
cupancy of the land so long as they shall live. A testator may also devise 
his land interests in the same way, reserving a life interest in his family. 
The effect of such conveyances would divest the Indian owner of his title, 
if any, subject to the life interests of himself and members of his family; 
probate expenses would be cut to a minimum; the corporation would have great- 
er borrowing assets; and the living members of the family would have lost 
little by such a conveyance. It is very doubtful in the writer's mind if 
there is a necessity to determine the heirs of Indians holding lands under 
trust patent. 

It would be possible for Indian corporations, if they wished, to 
enact ordinances forbidding to its members the right to office, or to loans, 
where they have no financial interest in their organization. It is elementary 



45 



that a person who has a financial interest in his organization will use his 
influence in making it a successful enterprise. 

A white man's title to land is an estate of inheritance. It is 
the largest r>ossible estate a man can have, "being an absolute estate. It is 
where land is given to a man and to his heirs absolutely, without any end or 
limitation put to the estate. But it may be lost by non-payment of taxes, 
conveyance by deed or mortgage, condemnation and so forth. An Indian's title 
to restricted lands may also be an estate of inheritance but with certain re- 
strictions and limitations. He cannot sell or mortgage his land without con- 
sent of the Government. 

Therefore his title is not absolute. His restricted land interests 
cannot be lost by non-payment of taxes until Congress acts. As the writer 
sees it, the Indian title is just a little better than a life estate, in that 
it can be inherited by future descendants. But after all, we cannot convey 
or devise lands to persons not in being. So in this, the Indian's interest 
should be secondary to that of his interest in his corporation. 

No race of people ever achieved economic freedom and self-determina- 
tion without responsibility, character and a fixed course in the proper appli- 
cation of their assets. After everything is said and done, all wealth comes 
from the land. Absolute jurisdiction over all the lands of the Indian communi- 
ty by its organization would endow it with great possibilities for the benefit 
of all. Bv^ C. R. Beaulieu , Minnesota Chippewa , Land and Probate Clerk , Tulalip 
Agency, Washington . 



VISITORS IN THE WASHINGTON OFFICE 



Recent visitors in the Washington Office have included Superintend- 
ent Charles H. Berry of Cheyenne and Arapaho Agency in Oklahoma; Superintend- 
ent Walter B. McCown of Kiowa Agency in Oklahoma; Superintendent John G. 
Hunter of Fort Peck Agency in Montana; and Superintendent Mark L. Burns of 
Consolidated Chippewa Agency in Minnesota. 



COVER DESIGN 



The design on the cover of this issue of "Indians At Work" was 
drawn by Bob Hofsinde (Grey-Wolf). It is a modern Hopi pottery design. 



46 



MEXICA N NOVEL GIVES VIVID INTERPRETATION OF INDIAN LIFE 
By D'Arcy McNickle, Administrative Assistant, Office of Indian Affairs 

EL INDIO — By Gregorio Lopez y Fuentes . Translated by Anita Brenner. 
Illustrations by Diego Rivera. 256 pp. Indianapolis: The Bobbs-Merril Co. 

There are several reasons why anyone interested in Indians and par- 
ticularly anyone interested or involved in Indian administration, will want 
to read El Indio , the book which was awarded the National Prize of Literature 
by the Camara de Diputados. Of first consideration, the book is readable. It 
is writing which, for directness, for simplicity and for verbal vitalism, is 
easily distinguished. Presented as -it is with Diego Rivera's illustrations 
imbedded in the text, one is struck by the remarkable kinship between writer 
and artist. Reflecting upon that kinship, one can think of nothing more orig- 
inal to say than that its ethos is Mexican, as we are coming to know it, thanks 
largely to Rivera. 

But what makes the book especially interesting to anyone having what 
we might c?rll a professional relationship with Indians, is the book's quality 
of epitomizing, not Indian history alone, but that ethos, that Indian charac- 
ter conditioned by its journey in the world. Consider: 

"The ducks are hatched in the bulrushes and they have scarcely bro- 
ken through their shells when they throw themselves into the water without 
having been taught by father or mother. The butterflies burst through their 
wrappings and wing freely into the sky. The snake comes into being and glides 
through the weeds with death in its mouth ... We were like that, too (but) 
what has happened to us is just that under the domination of another race, we 
have begun to lose faith in our instincts." Words of the tribal seer. 

It. would seem that man's first purpose and greatest need is to work 
through nature, as the worm works outward from the womb of the apple, into 
whatever you fancy to call it — the light, fulfillment, consuming grace. 
Primitive children impress themselves upon everything they touch, carnalizing 
the speechless stone and inventing an interlocking spiritualism by which they 
clasp to themselves powers that are beyond their own strength and appease the 
forces that would destroy them. When a more highly sophisticated people comes 
into contact with this primitivism, the outcome is obvious. Instincts suffer, 
indeed. It is decay, degradation, looming death. A dominant culture must 
make this decision: either be consistently and persistently ruthless, until 
it has stamped out the weaker pa.ttern; or apply good sense and a scientific 
mind to working out a condition in which both can survive. 



47 



Too often, one suspects, Indian administrators go cheerily to bed 
after a day in which they have maneuvered, or outwitted, a recalcitrant full- 
blood into doing something for his own good which means a further rending of 
the fabric of instinct. Then they wonder why the full-blood turns suddenly 
stubborn and uncooperative. An Indian administrator, if he takes the second 
choice, should begin each day by bowing to the east and reminding himself to 
practice humility, good sense and science. 

Perhaps these reflections do not strictly belong in a book review, 
but they come inescapably to mind as one reads El Indio . All the tragedy and 
confusion, individual and tribal, which the book portrays, results from the 
never-stumbling pride and conviction with which the ruling race encounters 
these mountain primitives. The boy who shatters his legs in escaping from 
three gold-lusting men and drags his agony into the lives of two families; 
the authorities who come to dynamite a mess of fish and legalize their hood- 
lumisra by the simple trick of reversing the Aviso which announced the law 
to the Indians; the building of a road which leads nowhere and the building 
of a church which has equal purposelessness, both with village labor - these 
are some of the incidents which characterize the attitude of the self-appointed 
better people. There is heavy-handedness in the author's art, it is true, but 
veracity is not strained. Of the future, one gathers, the author is not en- 
tirely convinced. He is biding his time. The Indians are on the march. A 
leader has risen among them and there are comings and goings, ambushings of 
officials, repeal of the head tax. But leadership is still naive. Much has 
yet to be learned, and suffered. 

Some readers will probably be left cold, at least at the beginning 
of the book, by what might be called the author's trick of anonymity. No 
characters are named. Time and place are not named. The tribe is not named. 
As any instructor in the methods of fiction can tell you, this is an artistic 
sin. But like all conventions, it can be violated with impunity when the 
violation is purposeful. Anyone reading through the book is certain to have 
a very vivid sense of Mexico, of its "corrugated greew of the Sierra", its 
sweltering jungles, its incredible economic contrasts, its laboring under the 
handicap of an appalling superstition which in the past has been abetted by 
an ignorant priesthood and a corrupt petty officialdom. And this is further 
reason, if further reason is needed, why El Indio should be read by anyone 
interested in Indians, whose habitat, we are reminded, extends south of the 
Rio Grande and north of the Dominion border. 

************ * * * * * 
NEW NAME FOB I.E.C.W. 



Beginning July 1, Indian Emergency Conservation Work has been 
changed to Civilian Conservation Corps - Indian Division. This is a change 
of title only, and has no bearing on the Division's function. 



48 



FROM I.E.3.W. REPORTS (H EREAFTER TO BE DESIGNATED AS GCC - ID ) 



Tree Planting At Sac & Fox 
( Iowa ) Tree planting was continued 
this week. Nearly all the acreage in 
the field is planted. About 12,000 
trees which are left over are being 
lined out to he used for planting 
blank spaces later on. The weather 
has been cool and wet - just right 
for tree planting. Eug ene T. Hood , 
Glerk . 

Reorgan i zation Meeting At Tomah 
Indian School ( Wisco nsin) A meeting 
concerning the Reorganization Act 
was attended by the entire group of 
men on Thursday, May 27th. This 
meeting was well attended by the 
tribe as a whole and a great deal 
of interest was shown. Mr. Perue 
Farver from Ashland, Wisconsin, was 
the main speaker. The meeting start- 
ed at 2 p.m. and ended about 4 p.m. 
The ECW truck was used to .transport 
the men to the meeting. The Stock- 
bridge Business Committee is meet- 
ing with Mr. Farver today to com- 
plete arrangements and get a clear- 
er picture so that they can explain 
the details of reorganisation to 
those who were unable to attend the 
meeting. Ke nneth G. Abert , Trail 
L ocato r. 

Activ ities At Shawnee (Okla- 
homa) Weather conditions have been 
excellent for the last two weeks 
and the boys are enjoying their 
work, regardless of how much the 
sun bears down; the work goes on; 
time out at noon for lunch and soft 
ball and then more work. 

We are having many discussions 
on such topics as snake bites, swim- 



ming and where and how to apply many 
kinds of bandages. Every snake that 
is killed on the project is inspected 
and by doing this the boys are get- 
ting first-class information. 

We hope to make greater progress 
in building baffles. We are also 
trying to build a winning ball club 
and to be able to recognize poison- 
ous snakes if bitten; how to treat a 
snake bite. Herbert Frank l in , Asst . 
Leader . 

Rodent Co ntrol Wor k At Consoli - 
dated Ute ( Colorado ) Twenty man- 
days were spent on rodent control 
work this week. The crew has fin- 
ished control work along the irriga- 
tion structures under the Pine River 
Project in connection with Southern 
Ute Indian allotments and will spend 
the rest of their time on the worst 
areas of infestation on Indian al- 
lotments on this reservation. Three 
hundred and ten pounds of poisoned 
grain were- used and about 608 acres 
of land were covered. Progress has 
been very good.' Graves S. G-unn . 
Leader. 

Spring Development At Crow ( Mon - 
tana ) We finished clearing the old 
spring development material out of 
the way. The new installation is 
all in and all that remains to be 
finished is the fence. The lessee 
is highly pleased with the work we 
have done. This spring represents 
the only water available to him in 
his 3,000 acre lease. 

We expect to move from this 
spring Monday. Stephen Sun Goes Slow . 



49 



Reservoir Maintainence At Choc - 
jtaw and Chicka saw Sanatoriu m (Okla- 
homa) We have made very good prog- 
ress on the Stock Water Reservoir 
reinforcement. 

This dam is being reinforced 
with clay, soil and rocks. The walls 
of this dam were very weak, in fact, 
near collapse and it was necessary 
that this work be done to preserve 
the dam. 

From three to four teams have 
been used daily in this work, pulling 
slip loads of clay, soil and rocks 
upon the walls of the dam. The clay, 
soil and rocks are used for the pur- 
pose of strengthening and reinforc- 
ing the structure of the dam. 

Weather conditions have been 
ideal this spring and the forests 
and mountains on and near the reserve 
are most beautiful. Dr . William E. 
Van Cleave , Sup erintendent . 

Erosion Control Work At Pima 
( Arizona ) Erosion control work 
was gotten under way during the 
week in the vicinity of Gila Cross- 
ing and fair progress was made with 
one tractor and a small team crew. 
•The Indians of that vicinity are 
glad to get busy. 

All fence repairs in Gila Riv- 
er and in Salt River Reservations 
are going along very well. One small 
crew is working at Salt River and 
another at Gila River. 

The Papagos of Ak Chin were 
glad to be employed repairing the 
small flood control dike as the 
washout last year makes them appre- 
hensive of the summer storms. Clyde 
H. Packer , Project Manager . 



Truck Trail Maintenance At Ho op a 
Valley ( California ) We have been en- 
joying lovely weather during the past 
week and work has begun on the truck 
trail and horse trail clearing slides, 
fallen trees and grading in prepara- 
tion for summer use during the fire 
season. A crew of 14 men worked on 
the Big Hill and Hostler Ridge Trails 
and completed some seven miles. The 
bulldozer was used to clear slides 
and the grader will be used to grade 
that portion next week. Two men 
worked on the Bull Creek Horse Trail 
which covered a large area of the 
reservation bordering the Klamath 
National Forest. 

Work is progressing nicely on 
the subsistence garden project at 
Johnson Village. A quarter-mile of 
ditch line was cleared during the 
week. The crew worked in large tim- 
ber and made good progress. 

Three of the enrollees left on 
Thursday morning to attend the Dis- 
trict Forest Guard Training School 
at Toppenish Agency in Washington. 
The courses will begin on Monday, 
and will continue for one week. The 
men who made the trip were very en- 
thusiastic at tyie opportunity to de- 
velop themselves along the lines for 
which the school is being conducted 
and we expect good results from them. 
Patrick J_. Rogers , Assistant Clerk . 

Range Revegetation At Alabama 
and Coushatta ( Texas ) Under the 
range revegetation project, about 
thirty acres were planted with les- 
pedeza seed bought out of the last 
allotment. Several good showers of 
rain have fallen that will insure a 
good stand. 

The enrollees have been applying 



50 



"High Life" to the ant hills on 
Saturday. It is indeed fortunate 
that this noison was on hand from 
the allotment; for the ants were 
completely destroying the crops as 
they came up. J. E. Farley, Indian 
Agent. 

Progress At Uintah & Ou ray 
( Uta h) Truck and machine operators 
from Camp #4 and this camp have com- 
pleted a course in First-Aid, making 
them competent to handle any in- 
juries that might occur on or off 
the works. 

Our truck trail maintenance 
project #40, the road crew, have 
"been placing new culverts to let the 
water that has collected in the 
ditches a chance to drain off. 

Six culverts were placed on 
the Whiterocks, John Star Truck 
Trail. One 24" x 16' and five 15" 
x 16' . 

Two culverts were put in on the 
road being built into the Uintah 
Hanger Station. One 24" x 14' and 
one 15" x 14' . The road into Uintah 
Ranger Station was straightened out 
and built up by hauling dirt and grav- 
el on it. This has been very slow as 
it has been done by hand. We hope by 
next week we 'can get some dump trucks 
and our grader will be in working or- 
der. Hay Langley , Camp Assistant . 

Truc k Trail Maintenan ce At Fort 
Tot ten ( North Dakota ) Truck trail 
maintenance is well under way. We 
are now reshaping Horse Shoe Lake 
Truck Trail and putting in a few more 
turn-outs and approaches. Rains have 
slowed up operation somewhat. 

The fourth windmill was erected 



this week and one concrete stock wa- 
tering tank poured. We have received 
our second set of steel forms for 
construction of concrete water tanks 
which will enable us to speed up op- 
eration. Chri stian A. Huber , Trail 
Locator . 

Soil Erosion Control Ai PQ.ta_w.at- 
omi (Kansas) A crew of 13 men have 
been working on the Kickapoo Reserva- 
tion this week on an erosion control 
project on the Wapp Allotment. Two 
check dams were completed this week, 
making a total of 5 completed to 
date on this allotment* also 52 cubic 
yards of dirt were excavated in prep- 
aration for the check dams. P. 
Evere tt Sr.erry. 

Dam Con struc tion At Sa lem Agency 
( Oregon ) Weather conditions have been 
fine. We pumped 2500 gallons of wa- 
ter that had seeped into the ditch 
out; (8 man-days) and excavated nine 
cubic yards of blue clay in order to 
make room for the concrete forms (20 
man-days); and 25 yards of material 
that had caved in over night was re- 
moved. 

Approximately 1,000 square feet 
of concrete forms have been construc- 
ted and are ready to be laid in the 
ditch bottom (12 man-days) ; and a 
small tool shed has been built to 
house equipment and tools, (8 man- 
days). Richard H. Allen, Sub-foreman . 

Revegetating Pasture Land At 
Chilocco Indian School ( Oklahoma ) 
Indian Emergency Conservation Work 
has started on the Chilocco Reserva- 
tion and is furnishing needed work 
for many of the Indian boys that 
live near the reservation. The tools 
were checked out May 14 and work 
started on May 17. Heha n Pop-pan . 



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